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Examples

Simpson's Paradox

Simpsons Paradox

Simpson's Paradox rears its ugly head in many research studies and can potentially lead to catastrophic biases in the estimation of effects, such that the naively-perceived effect is the opposite of the true effect. 

This example illustrates this type of sign reversal, plus it adds another twist: Depending on what variables we condition on, we observe a double reversal of the sign of the effect.

For a full explanation, please see Example 4 in our seminar on Artificial Intelligence for Research, Analytics, and Reasoning.

Example Files